Site Map

Pantothenic acid and biotin

Pantothenic acid; Pantethine; Vitamin B5; Vitamin B7

Pantothenic acid (B5) and biotin (B7) are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If the body can't use the entire vitamin, the extra amount leaves the body through the urine. The body keeps a small reserve of these vitamins. They have to be taken on a regular basis to maintain the reserve.

I Would Like to Learn About:

Function

Pantothenic acid and biotin are needed for growth. They help the body break down and use food. This is called metabolism. They are both required for making fatty acids.

Pantothenic acid also plays a role in the production of hormones and cholesterol. In addition, it is used in the conversion of pyruvate, a substance that is essential to many metabolic pathways in the body.

Food Sources

Almost all plant- and animal-based foods contain pantothenic acid in varying amounts, though food processing can cause a significant loss.

Pantothenic acid is found in foods that are good sources of B vitamins, including the following:

Biotin is found in foods that are good sources of B vitamins, including:

Side Effects

Lack of pantothenic acid is very rare, but can cause a tingling feeling in the feet (paresthesia). Lack of biotin may lead to muscle pain, dermatitis, or glossitis (swelling of the tongue). Signs of biotin deficiency include skin rashes, hair loss, and brittle nails.

Large doses of pantothenic acid do not cause symptoms, other than (possibly) diarrhea. There are no known toxic symptoms from biotin.

Recommendations

REFERENCE INTAKES

Recommendations for pantothenic acid and biotin, as well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. DRI is a term for a set of reference intakes that are used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and sex, include:

Dietary Reference Intakes for pantothenic acid:

*Adequate Intake (AI)

Dietary Reference Intakes for biotin:

*Adequate Intake (AI)

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods.

Specific recommendations depend on age, sex, and other factors (such as pregnancy). Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need higher amounts. Ask your health care provider which amount is best for you.

Related Information

Metabolism
Protein in diet
Carbohydrates

References

Markell M, Siddiqi HA. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 27.

Mason JB, Booth SL. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 205. 

BACK TO TOP

Review Date: 3/11/2021  

Reviewed By: Meagan Bridges, RD, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 09/29/2021.

ADAM Quality Logo

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, for Health Content Provider (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2022 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.