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Vertigo-associated disorders

Peripheral vertigo; Central vertigo; Dizziness; Benign positional vertigo; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

Vertigo is a sensation of motion or spinning that is often described as dizziness.

Vertigo is not the same as being lightheaded. People with vertigo feel as though they are actually spinning or moving, or that the world is spinning around them.

Images

Tympanic membrane
Cerebellum - function
Ear anatomy

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Causes

There are two types of vertigo, peripheral and central vertigo.

Peripheral vertigo is due to a problem in the part of the inner ear that controls balance. These areas are called the vestibular labyrinth, or semicircular canals. The problem may also involve the vestibular nerve. This is the nerve between the inner ear and the brain stem.

Peripheral vertigo may be caused by:

Central vertigo is due to a problem in the brain, usually in the brain stem or the back part of the brain (cerebellum).

Central vertigo may be caused by:

Symptoms

The main symptom is a sensation that you or the room is moving or spinning. The spinning sensation may cause nausea and vomiting.

Depending on the cause, other symptoms can include:

If you have vertigo due to problems in the brain (central vertigo), you may have other symptoms, including:

Exams and Tests

Examination by the health care provider may show:

Tests that may be done include:

The provider may perform certain head movements on you, such as the head-thrust test. These tests help tell the difference between central and peripheral vertigo.

Treatment

The cause of any brain disorder causing vertigo should be identified and treated when possible.

To help resolve symptoms of benign positional vertigo, the provider may perform the Epley maneuver on you. This involves placing your head in different positions to help reset the balance organ.

You may be prescribed medicines to treat symptoms of peripheral vertigo, such as nausea and vomiting.

Physical therapy may help improve balance problems. You'll be taught exercises to restore your sense of balance. Exercises can also strengthen your muscles to help prevent falls.

To prevent worsening of symptoms during an episode of vertigo, try the following:

You may need help walking when symptoms occur. Avoid hazardous activities such as driving, operating heavy machinery, and climbing until 1 week after symptoms have disappeared.

Other treatment depends on the cause of the vertigo. Surgery, including microvascular decompression, may be suggested in some cases.

Possible Complications

Vertigo can interfere with driving, work, and lifestyle. It can also cause falls, which can lead to many injuries, including hip fractures.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Contact your provider for an appointment if you have vertigo that does not go away or interferes with your daily activities. If you have never had vertigo or if you have vertigo with other symptoms (such as double vision, slurred speech, or loss of coordination), call 911 or the local emergency number.

Related Information

Dizziness
Benign positional vertigo
Ménière disease
Labyrinthitis
Multiple sclerosis
Broken bone

References

Bhattacharyya N, Gubbels SP, Schwartz SR, et al. Clinical practice guideline: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;156(3_suppl):S1-S47. PMID: 28248609 www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28248609.

Chang AK. Dizziness and vertigo. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 16.

Crane BT, Minor LB. Peripheral vestibular disorders. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Francis HW, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 167.

Kerber KA, Baloh RW. Neuro-otology: diagnosis and management of neuro-otoligical disorders. In: Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, Newman NJ, eds. Bradley's and Daroff's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 22.

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Review Date: 11/9/2021  

Reviewed By: Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Department of Neurology, Cooper Medical School at Rowan University, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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