Hammer toe is a deformity of the toe. The end of the toe is bent downward.
Hammer toe most often affects the second toe. However, it may also affect the other toes. The toe moves into a claw-like position.
The most common cause of hammer toe is wearing short, narrow shoes that are too tight. The toe is forced into a bent position. Muscles and tendons in the toe tighten and become shorter.
Hammer toe is more likely to occur in:
The condition may be present at birth (congenital) or develop over time.
In rare cases, all of the toes are affected. This may be caused by a problem with the nerves or spinal cord.
The middle joint of the toe is bent. The end part of the toe bends down into a claw-like deformity. At first, you may be able to move and straighten the toe. Over time, you will no longer be able to move the toe. It will be painful.
A corn often forms on the top of the toe. A callus is found on the sole of the foot.
Walking or wearing shoes can be painful.
A physical exam of the foot confirms that you have hammer toe. The health care provider may find decreased and painful movement in the toes.
Mild hammer toe in children can be treated by manipulating and splinting the affected toe.
The following changes in footwear may help relieve symptoms:
A foot doctor can make foot devices called hammer toe regulators or straighteners for you. You can also buy them at the store.
Exercises may be helpful. You can try gentle stretching exercises if the toe is not already in a fixed position. Picking up a towel with your toes can help stretch and straighten the small muscles in the foot.
For severe hammer toe, you will need an operation to straighten the joint.
Most of the time, you will go home on the same day as the surgery. You may be able to put weight on your heel to walk around during the recovery period. The toe may still be stiff after surgery, and it may be shorter.
If the condition is treated early, you can often avoid surgery. Treatment will reduce pain and walking problems.
If you have hammer toe, call your provider:
Avoid wearing shoes that are too short or narrow. Check children's shoe sizes often, especially during periods of fast growth.
Murphy AG. Lesser toe abnormalities. In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, Canale ST, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 83.
Montero DP. Hammer toe. In: Frontera, WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 88.
Winell JJ, Davidson RS. The foot and toes. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 674.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 8/15/2018
Reviewed By: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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