Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.
Bacteria are one type of germ that may cause meningitis. The staphylococcal bacteria are one type of bacteria that cause meningitis.
Staphylococcal meningitis is caused by staphylococcus bacteria. When it is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, it usually develops as a complication of surgery or as an infection that spreads through the blood from another site.
Risk factors include:
Symptoms may come on quickly, and include:
Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:
The health care provider will perform a physical exam. Questions will focus on symptoms and risk factors.
If the doctor thinks meningitis is possible, a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) is done to remove a sample of spinal fluid for testing. If you have a spinal fluid shunt, the sample may be taken from this instead.
Tests may include:
Antibiotics will be started as soon as possible. Vancomycin is the first choice for suspected staphylococcal meningitis. Nafcillin is used when tests show that the bacteria are sensitive to this antibiotic.
Often, treatment will include a search for, and removal of, possible sources of bacteria in the body. These include shunts or artificial heart valves.
Early treatment improves the outcome. However, some people do not survive. Young children and adults over age 50 have the highest risk for death.
Staphylococcal meningitis often improves more quickly, with fewer complications, if the source of the infection is removed. The source may include shunts, hardware in joints, or artificial heart valves.
Long-term complications may include:
Call 911 or the local emergency number or go to an emergency room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following symptoms:
Meningitis can quickly become a life-threatening illness.
In high-risk people, taking antibiotics before diagnostic or surgical procedures may help reduce the risk. Discuss this with your doctor.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Bacterial meningitis. www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html. Updated August 6, 2019. Accessed December 1, 2020.
Nath A. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 384.
Hasbun R, Van de Beek D, Brouwer MC, Tunkel AR. Acute meningitis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 87.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 10/25/2020
Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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