Site Map

Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.

Different types of anemia include:

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia.

Images

Red blood cells - elliptocytosis
Red blood cells - spherocytosis
Red blood cells - multiple sickle cells
Ovalocytoses
Red blood cells - sickle and Pappenheimer
Red blood cells, target cells
Hemoglobin

I Would Like to Learn About:

Causes

Although many parts of the body help make red blood cells, most of the work is done in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells.

Healthy red blood cells last between 90 and 120 days. Parts of your body then remove old blood cells. A hormone called erythropoietin (epo) made in your kidneys signals your bone marrow to make more red blood cells.

Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein inside red blood cells. It gives red blood cells their color. People with anemia do not have enough hemoglobin.

The body needs certain vitamins, minerals, and nutrients to make enough red blood cells. Iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid are three of the most important ones. The body may not have enough of these nutrients due to:

Possible causes of anemia include:

Symptoms

You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild or if the problem develops slowly. Symptoms that may occur first include:

If the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:

Exams and Tests

The provider will perform a physical examination, and may find:

Some types of anemia may cause other findings on a physical exam.

Blood tests used to diagnose some common types of anemia may include:

Other tests may be done to find medical problems that can cause anemia.

Treatment

Treatment should be directed at the cause of the anemia, and may include:

Possible Complications

Severe anemia can cause low oxygen levels in vital organs such as the heart, and can lead to heart failure.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you have any symptoms of anemia or unusual bleeding.

Related Information

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Folate-deficiency anemia
Iron deficiency anemia
Hemolytic anemia
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Aplastic anemia
Immune hemolytic anemia
Pernicious anemia
Sickle cell disease
Heart attack

References

Bunn HF. Approach to the anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 158.

Elghetany MT, Schexneider KI, Banki K. Erythrocytic disorders. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 32.

Lin JC. Approach to anemia in the adult and child. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 34.

BACK TO TOP

Review Date: 1/19/2018  

Reviewed By: Richard LoCicero, MD, private practice specializing in hematology and medical oncology, Longstreet Cancer Center, Gainesville, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

ADAM Quality Logo

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, for Health Content Provider (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2019 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.