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Heart disease and women

CAD - women; Coronary artery disease - women

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Heart - section through the middle
Heart - front view
Acute MI
Healthy diet

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People often do not consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the leading killer of women over age 25. It kills nearly twice as many women in the United States as all types of cancer.

Men have a greater risk for heart disease earlier in life than women. Women's risk increases after menopause.

EARLY HEART DISEASE SIGNS

Women may have warning signs that go unnoticed for weeks or even years before a heart attack occurs.

ACT IN TIME

Recognizing and treating a heart attack right away improves your chance for survival. On average, a person having a heart attack will wait for 2 hours before calling for help.

Know the warning signs and always call 911 or the local emergency number within 5 minutes of when symptoms begin. By acting quickly, you can limit damage to your heart.

MANAGE YOUR RISK FACTORS

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or having a certain health condition. You can change some risk factors for heart disease. Other risk factors you cannot change.

Women should work with their health care provider to address risk factors they can change.

Estrogen is no longer used to prevent heart disease in women of any age. Estrogen may increase the risk for heart disease in older women. However, it may still be used for some women to treat hot flashes or other medical problems.

Some women (especially those with heart disease) can take a low-dose aspirin daily to help prevent heart attacks. Some women will be advised to take low-dose aspirin to prevent stroke. Aspirin can increase the risk for bleeding, so check with your provider before beginning daily aspirin treatment.

LIVE A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

Some of the risk factors for heart disease that you CAN change are:

If you drink alcohol, limit yourself to no more than one drink per day. DO NOT drink just for the purpose of protecting your heart.

Good nutrition is important to your heart health, and it will help control some of your heart disease risk factors.

References

Fihn SD, Blankenship JC, Alexander KP, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS focused update of the guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation. 2014;130(19):1749-1767. PMID: 25070666 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25070666/.

Gulati M, Bairey Merz CN. Cardiovascular disease in women. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 89.

Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Henderson VW, et al; ELITE Research Group. Vascular effects of early versus late postmenopausal treatment with estradiol. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(13):1221-1231. PMID: 27028912 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27028912/.

Meschia JF, Bushnell C, Boden-Albala B, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology; Council on Hypertension. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(12):3754-3832. PMID: 25355838 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25355838/.

Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women--2011 update: A guideline from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(11):1243-1262. PMID: 21325087 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21325087/.

Ridker PM, Libby P, Buring JE. Risk markers and the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 45.

Smith SC Jr, Benjamin EJ, Bonow RO, et al. AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation endorsed by the World Heart Federation and the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(23):2432-2446. PMID: 22055990 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22055990/.

The NAMS Hormone Therapy Position Statement Advisory Panel. The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2017;24(7):728-753. PMID: 28650869 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28650869/.

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Review Date: 6/25/2020  

Reviewed By: Micaela Iantorno, MD MSc FAHA RPVI, Interventional Cardiologist at Mary Washington Hospital Center, Fredericksburg, VA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 09/28/2021.

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