Organic mental disorder (OMS); Organic brain syndrome
Neurocognitive disorder is a general term that describes decreased mental function due to a medical disease other than a psychiatric illness. It is often used synonymously (but incorrectly) with dementia.
Listed below are conditions associated with neurocognitive disorder.
BRAIN INJURY CAUSED BY TRAUMA
DRUG AND ALCOHOL-RELATED CONDITIONS
Complications of cancer and cancer treatment with chemotherapy can also lead to neurocognitive disorder.
Other conditions that may mimic organic brain syndrome include:
Symptoms can differ based on the disease. In general, organic brain syndrome causes:
Tests depend on the disorder, but may include:
Treatment depends on the underlying condition. Many conditions are treated mainly with rehabilitation and supportive care to help the person with activities lost due to areas where brain function is affected.
Medicines may be needed to reduce aggressive behaviors that can occur with some of the conditions.
Some disorders are short-term and reversible. But many are long-term or get worse over time.
People with neurocognitive disorder often lose the ability to interact with others or function on their own.
Call your health care provider if:
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Fernandez-Robles C, Greenberg DB, Pirl WF. Psycho-oncology: Psychiatric co-morbidities and complications of cancer and cancer treatment. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 56.
Merrick ST, Jones S, Glesby MJ. Systemic manifestations of HIV/AIDS. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 366.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 2/4/2020
Reviewed By: Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, FAAN, Attending Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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