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Sensorimotor polyneuropathy

Polyneuropathy - sensorimotor

Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a condition that causes a decreased ability to move or feel (sensation) because of nerve damage.

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Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Nervous system

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Causes

Neuropathy means a disease of, or damage to nerves. When it occurs outside of the central nervous system (CNS), that is, the brain and spinal cord, it is called a peripheral neuropathy. Mononeuropathy means one nerve is involved. Polyneuropathy means that many nerves in different parts of the body are involved.

Neuropathy can affect nerves that provide feeling (sensory neuropathy) or cause movement (motor neuropathy). It can also affect both, in which case it is called a sensorimotor neuropathy.

Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a bodywide (systemic) process that damages nerve cells, nerve fibers (axons), and nerve coverings (myelin sheath). Damage to the covering of the nerve cell causes nerve signals to slow or stop. Damage to the nerve fiber or entire nerve cell can make the nerve stop working. Some neuropathies develop over years, while others can start and get severe within hours to days.

Nerve damage can be caused by:

Some diseases lead to polyneuropathy that is mainly sensory or mainly motor. Possible causes of sensorimotor polyneuropathy include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include any of the following:

Symptoms may develop quickly (as in Guillain-Barré syndrome) or slowly over weeks to years. Symptoms usually occur on both sides of the body. Most often, they start at the ends of the toes first.

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will examine you and ask about your symptoms. An exam may show:

Tests may include:

Treatment

Goals of treatment include:

Depending on the cause, treatment may include:

PROMOTING SELF-CARE AND INDEPENDENCE

CONTROL OF SYMPTOMS

Safety is important for people with neuropathy. Lack of muscle control and decreased sensation can increase the risk of falls or other injuries.

If you have movement difficulties, these measures can help keep you safe:

Other tips include:

Medicines used to treat this condition:

Use pain medicine only when necessary. Keeping your body in the proper position or keeping bed linens off a tender body part may help control pain.

Support Groups

These groups can provide more information about neuropathy.

Outlook (Prognosis)

In some cases, you can fully recover from peripheral neuropathy if your provider can find the cause and successfully treat it, and if the damage does not affect the entire nerve cell.

The amount of disability varies. Some people have no disability. Others have partial or complete loss of movement, function, or feeling. Nerve pain may be uncomfortable and may last for a long time.

In some cases, sensorimotor polyneuropathy causes severe, life-threatening symptoms.

Possible Complications

Problems that may result include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you have loss of movement or feeling in a part of your body. Early diagnosis and treatment increase the chance of controlling the symptoms.

Related Information

Peripheral neuropathy
Myelin
Acute
Chronic
Alcoholic neuropathy
Diabetes and nerve damage
Guillain-Barré syndrome
Neuropathy secondary to drugs

References

Craig A, Richardson JK, Ayyangar R. Rehabilitation of patients with neuropathies. In: Cifu DX, ed. Braddom's Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: chap 41.

Endrizzi SA, Rathmell JP, Hurley RW. Painful peripheral neuropathies. In: Benzon HT, Raja SN, Liu SS, Fishman SM, Cohen SP, eds. Essentials of Pain Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 32.

Katitji B. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107.

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Review Date: 9/23/2019  

Reviewed By: Alireza Minagar, MD, MBA, Professor, Department of Neurology, LSU Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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