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Dementia due to metabolic causes

Chronic brain - metabolic; Mild cognitive - metabolic; MCI - metabolic

Dementia is loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases.

Dementia due to metabolic causes is a loss of brain function that can occur with abnormal chemical processes in the body. With some of these disorders, if treated early, brain dysfunction can be reversible. Left untreated, permanent brain damage, such as dementia, can occur.

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Brain
Brain and nervous system

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Causes

Possible metabolic causes of dementia include:

Symptoms

Metabolic disorders may cause confusion and changes in thinking or reasoning. These changes may be short-term or lasting. Dementia occurs when the symptoms are not reversible. Symptoms can be different for everyone. They depend on the health condition causing the dementia.

The early symptoms of dementia can include:

As the dementia gets worse, symptoms are more obvious and interfere with the ability to take care of yourself:

The person may also have symptoms from the disorder that caused dementia.

Exams and Tests

Depending on the cause, a nervous system (neurologic examination) is done to identify the problems.

Tests to diagnose a medical condition causing the dementia may include:

To rule out certain brain disorders, an EEG (electroencephalogram), head CT scan, or head MRI scan is usually done.

Treatment

The aim of treatment is to manage the disorder and control symptoms. With some metabolic disorders, treatment may stop or even reverse the dementia symptoms.

Medicines used to treat Alzheimer disease have not been shown to work for these types of disorders. Sometimes, these drugs are used anyway, when other treatments fail to control the underlying problems.

Plans should also be made for home care for people with dementia.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Outcome varies, depending on the cause of the dementia and the amount of damage to the brain.

Possible Complications

Complications may include the following:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if symptoms get worse or continue. Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if there is a sudden change in mental status or a life-threatening emergency.

Prevention

Treating the underlying cause may reduce the risk for metabolic dementia.

Related Information

Metabolism
Dementia
Confusion
Endocrine glands
Addison disease
Cushing disease
Diabetes and kidney disease
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Insulinoma
Low blood sugar
Hypoparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism
Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
Pheochromocytoma
Electrolytes
Low blood sodium
Calcium - ionized
Acute kidney failure
Prerenal azotemia
Liver disease
Porphyria
Vitamin B12
Pellagra

References

Budson AE, Solomon PR. Other disorders that cause memory loss or dementia. In: Budson AE, Solomon PR, eds. Memory Loss, Alzheimer's Disease, and Dementia. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 14.

Douglas VC, Josephson SA. Dementia and systemic disease. In: Aminoff MJ, Josephson SA, eds. Aminoff's Neurology and General Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 61.

Knopman DS. Alzheimer disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 402.

Peterson R, Graff-Radford J. Alzheimer disease and other dementias. In: Daradoff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 95.

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Review Date: 2/27/2018  

Reviewed By: Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Department of Neurology, Cooper Medical School at Rowan University, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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