Burdock has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. Traditionally, it has been used as a:
Medicinal uses of burdock have also been reported, in treating chronic diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and AIDS.
Extracts of burdock root are found in a variety of herbal preparations, as well as homeopathic remedies. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), burdock is often used with other herbs for sore throat and colds.
In Japan and some parts of Europe, burdock is eaten as a vegetable. Burdock contains inulin, a natural dietary fiber, and is also used to improve digestion. As a root vegetable, it possesses considerably stronger antioxidant activity than common vegetables and fruits. In fact, recent studies confirm that burdock has prebiotic properties that could improve health.
Despite the fact that burdock has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, few scientific studies have examined its effects. Preliminary studies suggest topical application of burdock leaves may help treat burns.
Burdock is native to Europe and Northern Asia, and is now widespread throughout the United States, where it grows as a weed. In Japan and parts of Europe, it is cultivated as a vegetable.
A member of the daisy family, burdock is a stout, common weed with burrs that stick to clothing or animal fur. The plant grows to a height of about 3 to 4 feet. It has purple flowers that bloom between the months of June and October. Burdock has wavy, heart-shaped leaves that are green on top and whitish on the bottom. The deep roots, which are used medicinally, are brownish-green, or nearly black on the outside.
Burdock consists primarily of carbohydrates, volatile oils, plant sterols, tannins, and fatty oils. Researchers are not sure which active ingredients in burdock root are responsible for its healing properties. But the herb may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial effects. Recent studies show that burdock contains phenolic acids, quercetin, and luteolin, which are all powerful antioxidants.
Burdock products consist of fresh or dried roots. Burdock supplements can be purchased in different forms, such as:
There are no known scientific reports on the pediatric use of burdock, so you should only give burdock to children under the supervision of a doctor.
Speak with your doctor regarding dosing. Topical preparations of burdock are also used for skin problems (such as eczema) and wounds.
The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. However, herbs can trigger side effects and interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, you should take herbs with care, under the supervision of health care provider.
Pregnant or nursing women should avoid burdock as it may cause damage to the fetus.
If you are sensitive to daisies, chrysanthemums, or ragweed, you may experience an allergic reaction to burdock, including dermatitis.
People who are dehydrated should not take burdock because the herb's diuretic effects could make dehydration worse.
It is best to avoid taking large amounts of burdock as a supplement because there are so few studies on the herb's safety. Burdock is considered safe when eaten as a food.
Because the roots of burdock closely resemble those of belladonna or deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), there is a risk that burdock preparations may be contaminated with these potentially dangerous herbs. Be sure to buy products from established companies.
DO NOT gather burdock in the wild.
There are no known scientific reports of interactions between burdock and conventional medications. However, you should talk to your doctor before taking burdock if you take:
Bissett NG, ed. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1994:99-101.
Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998:318.
Bradley P, ed. British Herbal Compendium. Dorset, England: British Herbal Medicine Association. 1996:47-49.
Chan YS, Cheng LN, Wu JH, et al. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology. 2011;19(5):245-254.
De Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hänsel R, et al, eds. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1997:231-237.
Ferracane R, Graziani G, Gallo M, Fogliano V, Ritieni A. Metabolic profile of the bioactive compounds of burdock seeds, roots and leaves. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;51(2):399-404.
Grases F, Melero G, Costa-Bauza A, et al. Urolithiasis and phytotherapy. Int Urol Nephrol. 1994;26:507-511.
Hutchens A. Indian Herbalogy of North America. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications; 1991:62-65.
Kolacz NM, Jaroch MT, Bear ML, Hess RF. The effect of Burns & Wounds (B&W)/burdock leaf therapy on burn-injured Amish patients: a pilot study measuring pain levels, infection rates, and healing times. J Holist Nurs. 2014;32(4):327-40.
Li D, Kim JM, Jin Z, Zhou J. Prebiotic effectiveness of inulin extracted from edible burdock. Anaerobe. 2008;14(1):29-34.
Lin CC, Lu JM, Yang JJ, et al. Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenge effects of Arctium lappa. Am J Chin Med. 1996;24:127-137.
Lin SC, Lin CH, Lin CC, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. J Biomed Sci. 2002 Sep-Oct;9(5):401-409.
Liu J, Cai YZ, Wong RN, et al. Comparative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in roots and seeds among various burdock (Arctium lappa) genotypes with high antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60(16):4067-4075.
Newall C, Anderson L, Phillipson J. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-care Professionals. London, England: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996:52-53.
Predes FS, Ruiz AL, Carvalho JE, Foglio MA, Dolder H. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:25.
Reiman MT, Neely AN, Boyce ST, et al. Amish burn ointment and burdock leaf dressings: assessments of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activites. J Burn Care Res. 2014;35(4):e217-23.
Swanston-Flatt SK, Day C, Flatt PR, et al. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetes Res. 1989;413:69-73.
Thring TS, Hili P, Naughton DP. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009;9:27.
Tyler V. The Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 4th ed. New York, NY: Haworth Herbal Press; 1999:71-72.
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2022 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.