Shingles and chickenpox (Varicella-zoster virus)

An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of shingles and chickenpox.

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References

Cohen J. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox, shingles). In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 351.

Gagliardi AM, Andriolo BN, Torloni MR, Soares BG. Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD008858. PMID: 26937872 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26937872.

John AR, Canaday DH. Herpes zoster in the older adult. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2017;31(4):811-826. PMID: 29079160 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29079160.

Johnson RW, Rice AS. Clinical practice. Postherpetic neuralgia. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(16):1526-1533. PMID: 25317872 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317872.

Kim DK, Hunter P. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older - United States, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68:115-118. PMID: 30730868 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30730868.

Lal H, Cunningham AL, Godeaux O, et al. Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(22):2087-2096. PMID: 25916341 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916341.

LaRussa PS, Marin M, Gershon AA. Varicella-zoster virus. In: Kliegman RM, St Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 280.

Robinson CL, Bernstein H, Romero JR, Szilagyi P. Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger - United States, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68:112-114. PMID: 30730870 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30730870.

Schuster AK, Harder BC, Schlichtenbrede FC, Jarczok MN, Tesarz J. Valacyclovir versus acyclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in immunocompetent patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;11:CD011503. PMID: 27841441 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27841441.

Vrcek I, Choudhury E, Durairaj V. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: a review for the internist. Am J Med. 2017;130(1):21-26. PMID: 27644149 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27644149.

Whitley RJ. Chickenpox and herpes zoster (varicella-zoster virus). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 136.

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Review Date: 1/9/2020  

Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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