Vitamins and Phytonutrients

An in-depth report on the dietary importance of vitamins and other nutrients.

I Would Like to Learn About:

Related Reports

SmokingAlcohol use disord...

References

Black DM, Rosen CJ. Clinical practice: postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(3):254-262. PMID: 26789873 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26789873/.

Chawes BL, Bønnelykke K, Stokholm J, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy on risk of persistent wheeze in the offspring: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):353-361. PMID: 26813208 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26813208/.

Chung M, Tang AM, Fu Z, Wang DD, Newberry SJ. Calcium Intake and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. 2017 May 2;166(9):687]. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(12):856-866. PMID: 27776363 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27776363/.

Donnenfeld M, Deschasaux M, Latino-Martel P, et al. Prospective association between dietary folate intake and skin cancer risk: results from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(2):471-478. PMID: 26156743 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26156743/.

Evans JR, Lawrenson JG. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;7:CD000253. PMID: 28756617 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28756617/.

Farina N, Llewellyn D, Isaac MGEKN, Tabet N. Vitamin E for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;4:CD002854. PMID: 28418065 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28418065/.

Gaziano JM, Sesso HD, Christen WG, et al. Multivitamins in the prevention of cancer in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;308(18):1871-1880. PMID: 23162860 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23162860/.

Hemilä H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(1):CD000980. PMID: 23440782 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23440782/.

Hollis BW, Wagner CL, Howard CR, et al. Maternal versus infant vitamin D supplementation during lactation: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2015;136(4):625-634. PMID: 26416936 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26416936/.

Kahwati LC, Weber RP, Pan H, et al. Vitamin D, Calcium, or Combined Supplementation for the Primary Prevention of Fractures in Community-Dwelling Adults: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2018;319(15):1600-1612. PMID: 29677308 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29677308/.

Litwack G. Vitamins and nutrition. In: Litwack G, ed. Human Biochemistry. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 20.

Meisenberg G, Simmons WH. Micronutrients. In: Meisenberg G, Simmons WH, eds. Principles of Medical Biochemistry. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 31.

Monacelli F, Acquarone E, Giannotti C, Borghi R, Nencioni A. Vitamin C, aging and Alzheimer's disease. Nutrients. 2017;9(7). pii: E670. PMID: 28654021 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28654021/.

Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent fractures in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(9):691-696. PMID: 23440163 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23440163/.

Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(8):558-564. PMID: 24566474 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24566474/.

Mozaffarian D. Nutrition and cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 49.

Okebukola PO, Kansra S, Barrett J. Vitamin E supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;3:CD009422. PMID: 28262916 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28262916/.

Padhani ZA, Moazzam Z, Ashraf A, et al. Vitamin C supplementation for prevention and treatment of pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;4:CD013134. PMID: 32337708 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32337708/.

Pham AK, McClave SA. Nutritional management. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 6.

Roth DE, Morris SK, Zlotkin S, et al. Vitamin D Supplementation in Pregnancy and Lactation and Infant Growth. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(6):535-546. PMID: 30089075 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30089075/.

Zhang Y, Fang F, Tang J, et al. Association between vitamin D supplementation and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2019;366:l4673. PMID: 31405892 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31405892/.

BACK TO TOP

Review Date: 7/14/2020  

Reviewed By: Meagan Bridges, RD, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

ADAM Quality Logo

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, for Health Content Provider (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2020 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.