D-dimer testFragment D-dimer; Fibrin degradation fragment; DVT - D-dimer; PE - D-dimer; Deep vein thrombosis - D-dimer; Pulmonary embolism - D-dimer; Blood clot to the lungs - D-dimer
D-dimer tests are used to check for blood clotting problems. Blood clots can cause health problems, such as:
Blood clots are clumps that occur when blood hardens from a liquid to a solid. A blood clot that forms inside one of your veins or arteries is calle...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
- Pulmonary embolism (PE)
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
How the Test is Performed
The D-dimer test is a blood test. You will need to get a blood sample drawn.
Blood sample drawn
Venipuncture is the collection of blood from a vein. It is most often done for laboratory testing.Read Article Now Book Mark Article
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is necessary.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise.
Why the Test is Performed
Your health care provider may order a D-dimer test if you are showing symptoms of blood clots, such as:
- Swelling, pain, warmth, and changes in skin color of your leg
- Sharp chest pain, trouble breathing, coughing up blood, and fast heart beat
- Bleeding gums, nausea and vomiting, seizures, severe stomach and muscle pain, and decreased urine
Your provider may also use the D-dimer test to see if treatment for DIC is working.
A normal test is negative. This means that you probably do not have problems with blood clotting.
If you are getting the D-dimer test to see if treatment is working for DIC, a normal or decreasing level of D-dimer means the treatment is working.
What Abnormal Results Mean
A positive test means that you may be making blood clots. The test does not tell where the clots are or why you are making clots. Your provider may order other tests to see where clots are located.
A positive test may be caused by other factors, and you may not have any clots. D-dimer levels can be positive due to:
- Liver disease
- Recent surgery or trauma
- High lipid or triglyceride levels
- Heart disease
- Being over 80 years old
This makes the test mostly useful when it is negative, when many of the above causes can be ruled out.
Veins vary in size from one person to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Risks of having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Multiple punctures to locate veins
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Blood accumulating under the skin (hematoma)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
Goldhaber SZ. Pulmonary embolism. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 84.
Kline JA. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 78.
Lim W, Le Gal G, Bates SM, et al. American Society of Hematology 2018 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. Blood Adv. 2018;2(22):3226-3256. PMID: 30482764 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30482764/.
Siegal D, Lim W. Venous thromboembolism. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 142.
Review Date: 1/13/2020
Reviewed By: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.