Paraphimosis occurs when the foreskin of an uncircumcised male cannot be pulled back over the head of the penis.
Causes of paraphimosis include:
- Injury to the area.
- Failure to return the foreskin to its normal location after urination or washing. This is more common in hospitals and nursing homes.
- Infection, which may be due to not washing the area well.
Men who have not been circumcised and those who may not have been correctly circumcised are at risk.
Paraphimosis occurs most often in boys and older men.
The foreskin is pulled back (retracted) behind the rounded tip of the penis (glans) and stays there. The retracted foreskin and glans become swollen. This makes it difficult to return the foreskin to its extended position.
- Inability to pull the retracted foreskin over the head of the penis
- Painful swelling at the end of the penis
- Pain in the penis
Exams and Tests
A physical exam confirms the diagnosis. The health care provider will usually find a "doughnut" around the shaft near the head of the penis (glans).
Pressing on the head of the penis while pushing the foreskin forward may reduce the swelling. If this fails, prompt surgical circumcision or other surgery to relieve swelling will be needed.
Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.Read Article Now Book Mark Article
The outcome is likely to be excellent if the condition is diagnosed and treated quickly.
If paraphimosis is left untreated, it can disrupt blood flow to the tip of the penis. In extreme (and rare) cases, this may lead to:
- Damage to the penis tip
- Loss of the penis tip
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Go to your local emergency room if this occurs.
Returning the foreskin to its normal position after pulling it back may help prevent this condition.
Circumcision, when done correctly, prevents this condition.
Elder JS. Anomalies of the penis and urethra. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 559.
McCollough M, Rose E. Genitourinary and renal tract disorders. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 173.
Virasoro R, Jordan GH, McCammon KA. Surgery for benign disorders of the penis and urethra. In: Partin AW, Domochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 82.
Male reproductive anatomy - illustration
The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the testicles (testes), the epididymis, the seminal vesicles, and the prostate.
Male reproductive anatomy
Review Date: 1/10/2021
Reviewed By: Kelly L. Stratton, MD, FACS, Associate Professor, Department of Urology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.